Resources on Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying

Voting rights in a pandemic: Supreme Court reimposes witness requirement, creating a significant barrier for voters and risking public safety

This list isn't comprehensive. I focused on the most recent court rulings rather than the most important of the year. Since keep_track is more focused on the Trump administration's actions than on state laws, I'd suggest also checking out /savethevote, where I try to post voting rights articles that don't fit here.
Before we start, one of the key legal issues at hand is called the "Purcell principle," a legal doctrine based on a 2006 Supreme Court case, Purcell v. Gonzalez, that warns courts against making changes to voting rules and procedures close to an election. But with so many more voters casting their ballots early this year because of the pandemic, courts are grappling with how to balance the Purcell principle with making sure the right to vote is protected.

Losses for voting rights

South Carolina: The Supreme Court on Monday reinstated the witness requirement for South Carolina mail ballots after lower courts ruled that having the requirement created risk during the pandemic. As usual for a shadow docket case, it didn’t explain its decision.
  • Ballots received within two days of the order will be accepted without a witness signature. Three conservative justices - Justices Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito, and Neil Gorsuch - would have allowed South Carolina to apply the witness signature rule retroactively, nullifying tens of thousands of ballots already cast. Furthermore, South Carolina has no ballot “cure” procedure: Voters aren’t notified when their ballots are tossed, and they don’t get an opportunity to fix any defects.
Wisconsin: A three-judge panel of the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals split 2-1 in favor of staying a lower court’s order, which would have allowed for ballots postmarked by Election Day to be received by Nov. 9, six days later, in order to be counted. The stay also suspended an order extending the deadline for online and mailed-in voter registration from Oct. 14 to Oct. 21, and it stopped potential electronic delivery of certain ballots.
  • Judge Frank Easterbrook (Reagan appointee) and Amy St. Eve (Trump appointee) were in the majority. Judge Ilana Rovner (George H. W. Bush appointee) dissented, writing that “no citizen should have to choose between her health and her right to vote.”
Texas The Texas Supreme Court ruled Wednesday that Harris County, one of the largest in the country, cannot mail out applications for absentee ballots to all of its 2.4 million registered voters. The court is completely staffed with Republican appointees. The state sued County Clerk Chris Hollins in August. Both the state district judge and panel of three state appellate judges (all Democrats) ruled in favor of Hollins.
Georgia: A three-judge panel of the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decided 2-1 to grant a stay of a judge’s ruling to count ballots postmarked by Nov. 3 and received at county election offices by the following Friday. Under the new order, ballots must be received by 7pm on Election Day, no matter the postmark.
  • Trump Trump appointees were in the majority: Judge Britt Grant and Barbara Lagoa. Judge Charles Wilson (Clinton appointee) dissented, writing that the lower court’s order allowing ballots to be received for a couple extra days was “reasonable: It imposes a small burden on the state in order to avoid a more substantial burden on an individual’s right to vote.”
Indiana: A three-judge panel of the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lower court ruling that the state’s restrictions on allowing mail-in voting are constitutional. A coalition of voting rights groups and concerned voters has sued to extend the no-excuse mail-in balloting that Indiana allowed for the spring primary to the general election.
“The court recognizes the difficulties that might accompany in-person voting during this time,” the ruling said. “But Indiana’s absentee-voting laws are not to blame. It’s the pandemic, not the State, that might affect Plaintiffs’ determination to cast a ballot.”
  • A Trump appointee, Michael Scudder, and two Reagan appointees - Kenneth Ripple and Michael Kanne - were unanimous in their ruling.

Wins for voting rights

Pennsylvania: Judge Gary Glazer (Pennsylvania Court of Common Pleas) rejected a bid by Trump’s campaign to force Philadelphia to allow campaign representatives to monitor people registering to vote or filling out mail-in ballots in election offices in Philadelphia. Trump sent unautohrized poll watchers to the city’s satellite election offices but they were barred by city election officials.
  • Trump and his supporters spread false claims that the city workers are biased against Trump and trying to steal the election.
EDIT: Pennsylvania: New this morning, Trump-appointed District Court Judge Nicholas Ranjan has dismissed a Trump campaign lawsuit challenging drop boxes for mail voting in Pennsylvania. Ranjan says Trump presented no credible evidence of voter fraud. Ruling.
Ohio: U.S. District Judge Dan Polster (Clinton appointee) blocked Ohio Secretary of State Frank LaRose's order prohibiting off-site drop boxes for absentee ballots. LaRose tried to limit ballot drop boxes to one location per county: a county's election office. A three-judge panel of the 10th Circuit had previously ruled that county elections officials are allowed to establish off-site drop boxes but LaRose did not comply.
"The Secretary is continuing to restrict boards from implementing off-site collection, and he appears to be doing so in an arbitrary manner," Polster wrote. "The Court has given the Secretary every opportunity to address the problem ... and he has been unwilling or unable to do so."
Montana: Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan on Thursday denied a request from Republicans to block Montana Gov. Steve Bullock's directive last month allowing counties to send mail-in ballots to all registered voters amidst the coronavirus pandemic. Kagan, who has jurisdiction over the lower court involved in the case, turned down the request without referring the petition to her colleagues or asking the other side for its views.
Michigan: Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law a bill that gives clerks in larger cities of the battleground state an extra 10 hours to open and sort, but not count, absentee ballots in a move to speed the Election Day counting process on Nov. 3.
Iowa: State Judge Robert Hanson (elected) blocked Iowa’s secretary of state Monday from enforcing an order that barred counties from sending absentee ballot applications to voters with their personal information already filled in. Republican groups, including the RNC and Trump’s campaign, have appealed the decision to the Iowa Supreme Court.
Arizona: U.S. District Judge Steven Logan (Obama appointee) on Monday granted a last-minute extension of the deadline for Arizona residents to register to vote - moving the deadline to 5 p.m. on Oct. 23.
Texas: The Texas Supreme Court declined a case by the Republican Party of Texas to reverse a proclamation by Gov. Greg Abbott that extended the early voting period. Gov. Abbott issued the proclamation in July to extend the early voting period six days from Oct. 13-30 due to COVID-19.
Texas: U.S. District Judge Robert Pitman (Obama appointee) granted an injunction barring enforcement of Gov. Greg Abbott’s Oct. 1 proclamation that limited counties to one mail-in ballot drop-off location. Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton, whose office defended Abbott’s order, has already appealed the decision to the 5th Circuit.
EDIT: A three-judge panel of the 5th Circuit has temporarily blocked Pitman's ruling from taking effect, thus meaning that Abbott's order is still in place. All three judges were appointed by Trump: Willet, Ho, and Duncan.
New Jersey: District Judge Michael Shipp (Obama appointee) ruled against the Trump campaign’s attempt to stop the state from allowing election officials to process ballots received by mail 10 days before Election Day and those received two days after Election Day even if those ballots don't have a postmark.

Keep an eye on…

USPS: The U.S. Postal Service is blocking members of Congress from inspecting postal facilities, citing the Hatch Act and the proximity to the election. Three Democrats — Reps. Jared Huffman (Calif.), Debbie Wasserman Schultz (Fla.) and Bill Pascrell Jr. (N.J.) — have been denied access to postal buildings in their home states in the past six weeks.
USPS: Sen. Peters released an update on USPS performance. The report shows that while on-time mail delivery improved following Congressional oversight efforts at the end of the summer, delivery performance has fluctuated in recent weeks, and declined overall during the month of September.
Intimidation: A private security company is recruiting former U.S. military Special Operations personnel to guard polling sites in Minnesota on Election Day, an effort the chairman of the company said is intended to prevent left-wing activists from disrupting the election but that the state attorney general warned would amount to voter intimidation and violate the law.
  • If you or someone else is being harassed or threatened at the polls, let a poll worker know. Then call and report it to the Election Protection Hotline (1-866-OUR-VOTE) or the US Department of Justice voting rights hotline (1-800-253-3931). You should also contact your state board of elections.
  • Georgetown Law created fact sheets for all 50 states explaining the laws barring unauthorized private militia groups and what to do if groups of armed individuals are near a polling place or voter registration drive.
  • Here are the laws regarding poll watchers in general in each state.
Volunteer! Information on volunteering at the polls (not as a watcher, but as an election worker). Another option for info.
Justice Department: A Justice Department lawyer in Washington said in a memo to prosecutors on Friday that they could investigate suspicions of election fraud before votes are tabulated. That reversed a decades-long policy that largely forbade aggressively conducting such inquiries during campaigns to keep their existence from becoming public and possibly “chilling legitimate voting and campaign activities” or “interjecting the investigation itself as an issue” for voters.
  • The exception allows investigators to take overt investigative steps, like questioning witnesses, that were previously off limits in such inquiries until after election results were certified. The move also allows prosecutors to make more of a spectacle of election fraud in the weeks before the vote on Nov. 3.
Kansas: Kansas Senate President Susan Wagle told a conservative group that Republicans need to win two-thirds majorities in both houses of the Kansas Legislature this year so her party can rig the redistricting process to elect and protect Republican candidates.
“During redistricting, I need to give (my potential successor) some more Republican neighborhoods in order to make sure she stays elected,” Wagle said. “I guarantee you, we can draw four Republican congressional maps,” Wagle said. “But we can’t do it unless we have a two-thirds majority in the (state) Senate and the House.”
submitted by rusticgorilla to Keep_Track [link] [comments]

Hombrew I've Played: Subclasses Edition, Part 2(Paladin to Wizard) - An extensive list of over a hundred subclasses I've playtested, what I still allow, and a brief summary of each and my experience with it.

For Homebrew Classes, See This Post.
For Homebrew Subclasses (Part 1), See This Post with Barbarian to Monk.
So I was supposed to post this uh... 16 days ago, so I'll tell you what, you get a 16% discount off what you paid for it. That's right, 16% of $0 so I don't want to hear any complaints.
For my methodology and defense of Homebrew and why I use it, feel free to read the opening of my original posts ) where I go to greater length on the subject... don't had the word count to spare every post. Suffice to say that my experience is that the main problem that faces Homebrew is that it can be exceedingly difficult to sort through the vast selection and find stuff you might actually want to use. My groups and I have playtested hundreds of hours of the content out there, so I'm just trying to share that time and effort with you.
The purpose of this list is to give a brief outline of each thing I've playtested, and give people some guidance if they want to look further into it. I'm not telling you what to allow, just what might be worth taking a look at if it strikes your fancy. I can give a more in-depth thought on anything on the list, just feel free to ask, though I may get overwhelmed with those sort of requests in my limited reddit time and slow typing.

Balance Criteria

Note: What I think is balanced is not guaranteed to be what you think is balanced. Here is the main considerations I have (in order of importance to me):

Rules for inclusion:

Additionally, I weigh overhead against new options - I am fairly tolerant of complicated mechanics or options, but I dislike things that force saves every turn, or allow for excessive rerolling of dice, or introduce floating modifiers. These are all things that unnecessarily slow down combat, and require extra justification for their presence (which is possible, just that the bar is higher).

Paladin

Subclass Creator Description Playtest Feedback I Allow Notes
Oath of Avarice COFSA GenuineBelieverer A Paladin that believes bling is justice. Balanced. It is actually pretty solid, and one of my favorite things from COFSA. I like alternative Paladin Oaths that are unique, and it's unique, and actually pretty balanced. It also does a much better job of having an adaptably flavor that is not tied to lore or strange mechanics. All around solid.
Oath of Anaracy POP BunnygeonMaster A Paladin the believes freedom of movement is a right. Balanced. It mostly just gives a lot of tools for moving about. Limitless power has a line that might break your game about ignoring creature's immunity, so you may want to play your BBEG accordingly or tweak that feature, but that's 20th level.
Oath of the Grim Hunt SethBlackwood A Paladin with a Warlock's amount of edge. Somewhat too much. d12 smites with rerolls, even as your channel divinity, is a lot in practice; we are talking a first level slot for 3d12 with rerolls vs. a Fiend or something. X I think this is probably the Paladin where I started adopting the principle to stop playtesting Paladins that have a feature that reads, essentially, "Smite harder", as that is really the last thing Paladins need in life even if it is what they end to want.
Oath of the Midnight Hour the_singular_anyone(walrock) A Paladin that stalks the night and shanks their foes. Mostly balanced. I find Shadowblade to be a bit much early on, especially due to it's fairly high chance to interact with criticals. I allow it because I want a Paladin that is like this, but I would like it better if Shadowblade wasn't as strong (or was at least harder to use). I may nerf that feature if someone wanted to play it in a campaign again.
Oath of Power POP BunnygeonMaster A Paladin that is a superhero. It is a little too meme-like for me, but mechanically balanced. X I should have been more suspecious of anything that has an anime quote, but I didn't recognize such things on first pass. Your mileage will vary based on the tone of your game.
Oath of Sanity KibblesTasty A blantantly misnamed Oath for making an insane Paladin. Balanced, if perhaps on the somewhat more specific/undertuned side. This oath bats way over par in making characters that very entertaining. It's like if a Call of Cthulu investigator found their way into D&D but still had their old insticts that everything was going to kill them.
Oath of Zeal CaelReader A Paladin that thinks Vengeance Paladins are soft on heretics. Giving Paladins more smite can be a little over the top. X I'm not sure giving up 10 points of lay on hands is overpowered, but it did feel imbalanced (as in just not in balance), in that it turned the Paladin into a very one note thing (more smites, all the time, which I believe is the intention of it). I also think Stern Gaze should probably just be intimidation, as it makes little sense for Persuasion checks.

Ranger*

Subclass Creator Description Playtest Feedback I Allow Notes
Beast Master (Revised) KibblesTasty Be more than just a graveyard manager for your menagrie of dead pets. A functional beastmaster. Balanced. A good balance between "your pet cannot attack" and "you have two actions" WotC has struggled a lot with pet classes, but I find it a good balance. Your pet can occasionally attack and frequently help you out.
Dragon Apprentice Ranger TheArenaGuy For when being raised by wolves just doesn't cut it. A ranger themed around emulating a dragon. Balanced, generally fits the Ranger template well, even if that template is kicking you right in the bonus actions. Some players are disappointed they don't get a dragon till 15th level. I don't use the cosmic dragons, so cannot speak to anything related to them here, but the rest should be fine.
Shooting Star ATLAS aeyana A Ranger that shoots for the stars (cosmic ranger). Balanced. It's fine, and generally obeys the Ranger rule that your bonus action will be a cluterfuck. I find their resource system (motes) sort of a pain in the ass and they generally have too much of it, but it's mostly fine.
Witch Hunter YAG Yorviing A Ranger that hunters Witches... and potentially other spell casters too. More or less balanced, but somewhat too specialized. If there aren't Witches to hunt, their feature pool is a little shallow. It's generally okay, though I may warn against it for a new player that may overestimate how many spell casting enemies they will fight (and I tend to run more than usual).
Witchguard RSquared A Ranger that fights off the Witch Hunters (above)... Bond with a spell caster and protect them. It is overpowered in a way, but I still allow it. It really comes down to how worried you are about a Ranger being somewhat too good at being a team player. It is overpowered in the sense that it is too strong when compared to what a Ranger subclass should be, but I don't find that it does it in a way that causes issues in my game. Your mileage may vary. Sort of requires buy in from another player, so a little unusual that way.

Rogue

Subclass Creator Description Playtest Feedback I Allow Notes
Acrobat Mage Hand Press Tumble and leap your way to victory. As written, Parting Toss makes no sense. If it is balanced depends on how you modify that feature. RAW, Parting Toss does nothing. If you read it to mean it's a free action, it's busted. I replaced that feature entirely.
Assassin(Revised) KibblesTasty Gives assassin new ways of dealing death. Balanced. The original assassin does one thing very well, this does a few things pretty well. Some will miss the old Assassinate, but it rarely played nice with a party, and we could go weeks without getting a single use of it, while this has a good mix of solo assassination and party play.
The Brotherhood Mage Hand Press Assassin's creed rogue. Partially balanced. Death From Above has a reasonable drawback until 13th level, and there it costs your reaction, so isn't too bad. Goes from near useless to very strong depending on how much vertical space is on your battlemaps.
Divine Agent KibblesTasty The black ops wing of any organized crime religion. Balanced, perhaps a little undertuned due to how late rogue subclass features come in. A Divine Rogue that isn't a 1/3 caster, but has limited casting from their features. Would prefer a little early casting.
Ruffian Jaekbad A Rogue that fights dirty dirter than usual. Balanced. The general idea is well implemented and works well, none of the features are crazy. The rare pleasent example of something on the /UA curated list that belongs there. Quite like the idea and its a unique take on a Rogue subclass while still being archetypically a rogue. Should be noted it doesn't specialize in strength (though can technically use it) despite the name.
Surgeon KibblesTasty A walking revoked medical license. Balanced. It provides a good balance of support and rogue template features. I run the Intelligence variant, as I prefer my surgeons to be smart rather than cunning.
Shinobi Mage Hand Press The ninja rogue everyone wants to be. Balanced, their ki is pretty limited and does reasonable things for the most part. I make Kaginawa part of Cunning Action rather than a free action; your mileage will vary based on how vertical your maps tend to be.
Spidertouched COFSA GenuineBelieverer A Spider themed rogue that shoots webs and poisons things. Balanced, if a little strong in the hands of a clever player, particularly when combined with CBE. There is a semi common synergy between nets and CBE, and this sort of amplifies that. In fact, it makes nets incredibly strong in general. It also scales extremely well with haste. They are limited in their special net requiring a bonus action (which conflicts with CBE), which is sort of its saving grace.

Sorcerer*

Subclass Creator Description Playtest Feedback I Allow Notes
Ashen Lineage COFSA GenuineBelieverer The kid of an Ashen Wolf Warlock. Balanced, more or less. The first level feature is mostly useless - produce flame mostly a worse firebolt, the claws are niche. It's okay, but some players were a little frustrated that it doesn't quite seem to do what it wants to do. It is hard to effectively actually use the Born of Ember feature, as Sorcerers are not natural gishes, and if you multiclass, you'd probably to actually attack for scaling reasons... it's like the Ashen Wolf Warlock, but lacks the invocations to make it actually work.
Aether Heart KibblesTasty A Sorcerer's whose true power is that of their heart. Because it's a magical power source. Balanced, if slightly undertuned at lower levels. It is sort of metamagic specialist, which I think is a good niche for a Sorcerer subclass, but doesn't quite go far enough and I already give extra metamagic.
Deathtouched DarkArts Jonoman3000 A Sorcerer that gets the power from a connection with death Balanced, generally powerful if dim light is commonly available, but may suffer a bit if your party likes it light sources. It doesn't have a bonus spell list, so I give it one, which sort of conflicts with the 6th level feature as there's just not that many necromany spells to go around, but it works out.
Imperial Birthright IrishBandit A Sorcerer with the bluest of blood that commands things. Mostly balanced. The 18th level feature is a little much relative to other Sorcerer 18th level features. I still allow it for specail cases, but have mostly retired it to just use Noble Warlord as that's usually a better for what my players are looking for, but they are different concepts.
Nymph Bloodline Mage Hand Press An alluring Sorcerer that specializes in charming. Not even vaguely balanced. Not suitable for most games. X Almost every feature is ill advised, but bypassing immunity to charm and bypassing legendary resistance and removing the drawbacks of charm magic is a combination that is guarenteed to a derail any game. Do not recommend.
Pheonix Spark(Revised) ElementalOrigins KibblesTasty A revision of the pheonix Sorcerer, a Sorcerer all about bursting into flames. Mostly balanced, and pretty good at feeling like the theme. When I playtested it the cap on restored hit points wasn't there and it was a bit much, but I see it's been updated. I used the UA version up until switching to this reversion recently, as pheonix sorcerers are popular in my groups (all of those UA elemental sorcerers are)
Seasonal TheArenaGuy If 5e Eladrin was a Sorcerer subclass. Balanced, if perhaps somewhat undertuned overall. X It's first level feature is to give you spells, which is cool, but I already give that to all Sorcerers, so it doesn't offer them enough. Conflict of Homebrew. Summer and Spring are also almost always better than Autumn or Winter.
Sea Soul (Revised) ElementalOrigins KibblesTasty A revision of the Sea Sorcerer from UA. Balanced, though a I felt it was a bit finicky at times. I have always struggled with the theme of this one as I feel its a little too close to Storm (both in the UA and this revision) but people want to play it, so I allow it. It's fine... this is a little more polished and balanced than the UA version was, but I allowed that one previously.
Stoneheart (Revised) ElementalOrigins KibblesTasty Kibbles' version of Stone Sorcerer, a more gish like Sorcerer. Balanced. It does not make the Sorcerer suddenly a tank, but gives them an interesting playstyle I like this one a good bit more than the UA version, it's power set is a little more grounded and coherent, while still making the Sorcerer a more viable gish-like thing. Has been quite popular. I did eventually drop the UA Stone Sorcerer awhile ago, so this was a good replacement.

Warlock

Subclass Creator Description Playtest Feedback I Allow Notes
The Acursed Archive COFSA GenuineBelieverer The world's evilest librarians. I had a big issue their ability to essentially planeshift 10 people into the library as an action. X I don't know if I would call it broken, but your mileage will vary. Read tainted knowledge carefully and decide how comfortable you are with that feature being abused. It's in some ways a better time stop at level 1. You and whole whole party can precast any non concentration spells you want (fire shield, mirror image, sanctuary, there's actually quite a few and trust me munchkins will find them)... and there is little hundreds more little things (non-healing potions, etc).
The Ashen Wolf COFSA GenuineBelieverer Warlock who made a pact with fire doggo. It's not really stronger than hexblade most of the time. Feels pretty geared toward Pact of the Blade though, and very invocation hungry. The 14th level feature isn't really balanced, but is also one of the few class features I've seen kill its player (and this happened in fact twice) due to the exhaustion backlash. I generally don't like features that give players more power in exchange for killing themselves. Depending on how you rule exhaustion and death, there are additional problems (if death removes all exhaustion, that can be exploited, if it doesn't, this subclass can permanently kill you).
The Archlich DarkArts Jonoman3000 A Warlock that made a deal with an Archlich. Somewhat subpar. The 1st level feature requires concentration, which will generally always be a deal breaker for a Warlock as they are so dependent on concentration. X The 6th level feature depends on the 1st level feature, which requires concentration, meaning if you use any Warlock spell like Hex or Darkness, you essentially have no subclass features until 10.
The Archmage Mage Hand Press An apprentice that's taken a massive short cut to the whole being a Wizard thing. Balanced, perhaps somewhat undertuned. Arcane Storage is better at some levels than others, but Ubreakable Spell and Spell Resistance are quite good.
The Blackthorn Grove COFSA GenuineBelieverer A warlock with an evil plant for a heart. Balanced? It's fine... the 1st level feature is niche, and the 6th level feature is strangely only really applicable to Pact of the Blade. The 6th level feature only really making sense for Pact of the Blade is sort of a problem, as generally speaking other Warlocks don't really want to hold a ranged weapon all the time (the only option that'd make sense for them to use that feature with).
The Blind Justicar COFSA GenuineBelieverer A Warlock that made a deal with a Warrior Saint to become a Paladin. I don't know what the math on the 1st level feature was supposed to be, but in my experience it doesn't really work out. X The first level feature lets you replace 2d20 with 3d12 drop the lowest, but best I can tell this makes you virtually always hit (or save, but you rarely have advantage on saves, while you usually have advantage on attacks). I'm not a deep math guy, so perhaps it was just absurd luck on the playtest, but 3d12 drop 1 does not seem like a reasonable way to roll attacks in my testing against fairly standard ACs (14-18).
The Currency Conspiracy COFSA GenuineBelieverer A typical merchant. Balanced, but more focused on social pillar and exploitation than combat. It's not necessarily suitable for all games, and depending on your intrepretation of the lore may be exclusively evil due to it's habit turning parts of people's souls into cash-money and all of its class features depending on doing so.
The Divine Beast TheArenaGuy Pact of the Beast Master More or less balanced. Due to the ability to resummon it with a pact slot, it tended to be an unlimited pool of hit points; there is a limiter based on time, but I never saw that really matter. You can fix this just by not attacking it, but your mileage will vary based on how run monster intelligence. X It is to Pact of the Chain what Hexblade is Pact of the Blade in a way that it's a subclass clearly designed for one Pact to fix that play style, and is just a little weird for other Pacts.
The Dreamer Mage Hand Press A Warlock for manipulating sleep and dreams. Has issues. Doubling the power of sleep at level 1 is truly broken. Sleep is a spell that has to fall off due to how powerful it can be. X Their School of Sonomancy Wizard does the same thing, and isn't on the list as I passed on it after trying this one. Doubling sleep's hit points at level 1-3 is ridiculous and will auto end most low level fights.
The Gelantinous Convocation COFSA GenuineBelieverer Befriend cheerful slimes. Balanced, though somewhat geared less toward combat. Their first level feature can make a murder mystery really boring, so read it before it allow it and decide if it'll work for the sort of game you run (allows you to eat a corpse and know what it knew once a day)
The Knowledge Keeper KibblesTasty A Warlock the knows everything there is to know. Your mileage may vary. Trades combat effectiveness for extreme utility. This one is very open ended, and I'm not sure I'd recommend it to anyone beside a veteran player. It's extremely flexible, but kept largely in check by Warlocks very limited slots.
The Lady of the Lake Xenoezen A Warlock that got their power from some aquatic ceremony with a watery tart. Mostly Balanced. It's generally balanced on its own. It is generally more balanced than Hexblade when it comes to Paladin multiclassing with it, though with less thematic dissonance. But if you don't allow Hexblade, don't allow this.
The Nebula ATLAS aeyana A very sparkly Warlock. Shimmering Cloud has an strange interaction with Armor of Agathys that is somewhere between nonfunctional and problematic. X You may read Armor of Agathys differnetly than I do and not count attacks that hit the Shimmer Cloud as proc'ing its damage, in which case you might be fine, but this is a lot if you don't (imagine a 3rd level AoA; each hit deals 15 to the attacker, but they have to deal 30 damage to break the shield, taking 15 damage each time they hit you); note them hitting the cloud procing AoA is probably not RAW though how I've always run abilities like that, so your mileage may vary.
The Saint Yorviing A Warlock blessed by a saint-like figure. Balanced. It's fine, though depends on how you do short rests you may be wary of Prayer of Healing on the Warlock list. The PDF is not the easiest thing to read, though that might just be an issue on my side due its non-standard formatting.
The Tempest KibblesTasty A Warlock that builds a storm around them. Balanced, though deals substantial mini-area of effect damage, making it highly effective sometimes. I like how the storm building mechanic extends the Warlocks effective power by making something out of it's limited uses of Pact Magic and giving it a bit more utility.
The Wild Hunt COFSA GenuineBelieverer The Warlock who made a pact with the bad guys from the Witcher Not balanced. Like many COFSA Warlocks it really depends on how you build it, but it gives a combination of things that can be really annoying to deal with, though seems pretty focused on Pact of the Blade. X Slayer's Armory is a little crazy as it makes Hunter's Mark add 2d6 damage, which when combined with a high hit-high attack build (like CBE) deals fairly ridiculous damage, and with Find Steed you can manipulate the hell out of range making them very difficult to deal with. Slayer's Armory technically does not scale with magic weapons, but that's not a great solution.

Wizard

Subclass Creator Description Playtest Feedback I Allow Notes
Generalist YAG Yorviing A Wizard that majored in GEs at Wizard school. More balanced than most generalist Wizards. It's no loremaster. I find Regenerative reservoir a bit much over the course of a day given how useful 1st level spell slots are, and how very powerful this is as you get later in the game, but this is largely a side effect of long adventuring days, so your mileage may vary.
School of Arithmetick Mage Hand Press A Wizard that's based on being good at math... ...but requires a DM bad at math to allow it. No comment and lesson learned. Not particulary balanced. X This whole subclass is pretty nonstandard. Accrual alone would disqualify from consideration for most people. As to what is broken, it's mostly using stats with Factorize, as a whole group of monsters will have the same value for a stat, and savvy player will know what that stat is often allowing somewhat absurd things.
School of Astronomy ATLAS aeyana A Wizard that's power comes from the alignment of the stars. Balanced, while the stars give you some flexibility (and some early damage) it's not generally too much. I read Spell Stars as that you still have to be able to see the target and you cannot see through the spell stars, so you still need line of sight. If you make different assumptions, balance might be different.
School of Blue Magic YAG Yorviing A Wizard based around stealing and copying their enemies spells. It's more or less balance, but completely dependent on your party and what you fight. X I don't have any real objection to it, but players generally didn't think it was what they thought of as a Blue Mage, but I don't really know enough the source material of the idea to comment there.
School of Hemomancy DarkArts Jonoman3000 A Wizard that specializes in the blood magic provided by the supplement. More or less balanced itself, but depends on the Hemomancy spell list, so your mileage may vary there. X I used it while I used those spells, but as I no longer use those spells, this wouldn't really work out as it's completely tied to those spells.
School of Innovation KibblesTasty A Wizard that lets you make your own spells. It's a good effort at balancing a ridiculous idea. X It's a good bit of fun, and I think could be used, but as with anything this open ended, some user caution is recommended. I do use it as a template for player created spells though.
School of Pathology KibblesTasty A current events Wizard. Somewhere between a plague doctor and a plague maker Mostly balanced. It will somewhat depend on the power and frequently of diseases in your game for their 14th level feature, but wasn't an issue for me. I am not personally a big fan of the spell contagion, I like the spell in principle, but it's in an awkward spot of being effectively "save three times or die". That's a gripe with the spell though, not this subclass.

Honorable Mentions

Compendiums & Sources

I've added a brief tag for how much content from compendiums I use for clarity. Limited generally means I don't use the spells or additional options, and may exclude up to half the character options. Most means I tend to use most of it. Some means I use less than limited, and it's usually case by case basis.
Please don't construe anything I say as saying that anything isn't worth anyone's time. Not all stuff works for me, but if it is on this list, I at least read it and thought it had some merit, and it probably would work fine for someone's game, even if it may have some balance issues. My balance issues might now by your (or the creator's) balance issues, you might just not care about balance issues. This is just my list that I am sharing because it might help people sort through the sea of stuff out there, and particularly if they find my balance criteria similar to theirs be extremely helpful.
*Ranger Footnote: I currently use the UA Class Variants Ranger with some exceptions. I use the Beastmaster from above, and I require the replacement options are taken in order (i.e. Tireless cannot be taken at level 1 for obvious reasons).
*Sorcerer Footnote: As discussed in my Classes post, I partially use the Sorcerer, Tweaked, but as I don't actually use most of those subclasses, I might be better to say I use the Sorcerer with Expanded Spell Lists, an extra metamagic, and no need for an arcane focus.

Next Steps

What would you like to see next in Homebrew I've Played? Races? Feats? Mechanics? Leave your suggestion and vote below if you'd like to see another part to the series with what you'd like to see, and if you'd like to be notified when the next part goes up.
I also have some updates on my classes post, so I may like do a list up every six months or year or so if people are interesting in that. I have gotten a lot of new subclasses since I started posting these as well, so there will be quite a bit of new stuff playtested in the future.
submitted by herdsheep to dndnext [link] [comments]

Everything we know about Tasha's Cauldron of Everything

[PLEASE NOTE: I will keep this list as up-to-date as possible before too many details make it impossible. If you find a new source of information (a tweet, a Youtube video, an article or interview), please send the link to me. I will check the source for new, credible information and update the list.]

The Basics

Tasha's Cauldron of Everything comes out November 17th, 2020.

Classes and Subclasses

ARTIFICER
BARBARIAN
BARD
CLERIC
DRUID
FIGHTER
MONK
PALADIN
RANGER
ROGUE
SORCERER
WARLOCK
WIZARD
MISCELLANEOUS

Races

Spells

The book includes "spells for both player characters and monsters."

Feats

There will be new feats.

Magic Items

There will be new magic items, including new "campaign-defining" artifacts and magical tattoos.
Magic Tattoos

DM Tools

The book contains rules for:
MAGIC ENVIRONMENTS
Magical environments are perfect for high-level encounters.
Magical Environments include:
GROUP PATRONS
Examples include:
SIDEKICKS

ART

Sources

Official Wizards of the Coast product description for Tasha's Cauldron of Everything
Elle Osili-Wood on Twitter - mentions Sidekicks
Gurav Gulati on Twitter - mentions Group Patrons
Mica Burton on Twitter - mentions Genie Patron
Omega Jones aka Critical Bard on Twitter - mentions Bard College of Creation
Sam de Leve on Twitter - mentions various magic items
Tanya De Pass on Twitter - mentions Armorer Specialist Artificer
Viva La Dirt League on Facebook - mentions new spells
Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything Has, Well… Everything for 5E D&D | Nerdarchy
Dungeons & Dragons Announces Tasha's Cauldron of Everything, A Major New Rules Expansion | comicbook.com
Dungeons & Dragons Announces New Book and Fall Event | IGN.com
With D&D's Next Rulebook, Character Creation Will Never Be the Same | io9
D&D'S NEXT EXPANSION, TASHA'S CAULDRON OF EVERYTHING, ADDS NEW SUBCLASSES AND RACIAL CUSTOMIZATION | SyFy
Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything coming in November, brings new ways to personalize your characters | Gaming Trend
Dungeons & Dragons Announced A New Book With A Little Bit Of “Everything” | Forbes
1 credible anonymous source
Issue 33 (August 26, 2020) of Dragon+: https://dnd.dragonmag.com/2020/08/12/in-the-works-tashas-cauldron-of-everything/content.html
DnD Adventurers League on Twitter
Preview of Wild Magic Barbarian and Genie Warlock subclasses | D&D Celebration [Celebration site was taken down] New Link for Warlock, New Link for Barbarian
Adventurer’s League Players Guide v10
Mind sliver preview | D&D Celebration [Celebration site was taken down] New link
Jeremy Crawford and Chris Perkins in “Dungeons & Designers” panel at D&D Celebration
Tasha’s mind whip preview | D&D Celebration [Celebration site was taken down] New link
Magic Tattoo previews | D&D Celebration [Celebration site was taken down] New link
D&D Celebration site was taken down, so here are the previews from that: Wild Magic Barbarian, Genie Warlock, Mind Sliver, Mind Whip, Masquerade and Coiling Grasp Tattoos
Volo's Guide to Monsters errata
Dragon Talk podcast: Sage Advice: Group Patrons
Dragon Talk podcast: Sage Advice: Sidekicks
submitted by LexieJeid to dndleaks [link] [comments]

Here's my take on how starting Ability Scores can be tied to your class rather than your lineage

You can find a prettified version of this on GM Binder or find a PDF version along with my thoughts of this on Dump Stat.
With Tasha's Cauldron of Everything coming out in a few months, there has been a lot of discussion about how broken (or awesome) their rules on adjusting your lineage Ability Score Increase will work. I've no idea what it is going to look like, but here is my idea on what something like it could look like. To be frank, I don't think it will look like this, but maybe some people will prefer my idea over whatever is in TCoE when we get a chance to see it. This is created to tie as closely as possible to what's already in the books, and is not attempting to change the balance or the number of bonuses one lineage gives to abilities over another.

Starting Abilities Variant

This variant rule ensures that the Primary Ability of any Class is not tied down to lineage choices. These rules assume that players shouldn't limit their character choices based on pre-assigned Ability Score Increases, but rather be given a chance to play any lineage as any Class. A player character is an exceptional being that goes against the bulk assumptions of a lineage and it's people.
The rules are focused on not differing from the main assumptions of Dungeons & Dragons - 5th edition. Those assumptions are that every lineage gets a +2 bonus in one Ability Score and a +1 bonus to another Ability Score.
To replicate that assumption without tying it to a lineage, every Class grants a +2 bonus to their Primary Ability as well as a character's Background now providing a +1 bonus to an Ability Score associated with that Background. This completely replaces the Ability Score Increase feature associated with every lineage, meaning a character only gains an increase to their Ability Scores based on their chosen Class and Background, not what people they came from.

Class & Primary Ability

Every Class has a Primary Ability as determined by the Player's Handbook. The chosen ability is focused on the main attributes of that Class, though it doesn't take into account possible subclasses that might rely on a different ability, like Eldritch Knight or Arcane Trickster. See Variant Rules for more information.
When creating a character, your selected Class provides a +2 bonus to your Ability Score that corresponds with the Primary Ability of the Class. If there are multiple options, you choose one.

Background Bonus

Every character must select a Background when creating their character. Based on what Background is chosen, a player has three Ability Scores to choose from to gain a +1 bonus to. This bonus can NOT be the same as your chosen Primary Ability unless your lineage allows it, see the section on Odd Lineages below.

Oddities Among a Lineage

Certain lineages may provide an additional bonus or penalty to your Ability Scores. If you are given a bonus to an Ability Score, it can not be for the same Ability Score as selected for your Primary Ability or your Background Ability Score Increase, see the section on Odd Lineages below.

Using These Rules

  1. Remove the Ability Score Increase feature pre-assigned by lineage.
  2. Your Class provides a +2 bonus to its Primary Ability.
  3. Your Background provides a +1 bonus to one of the three Ability Scores linked to it, choose one.
  4. If you have an Odd Lineage, see the section below for more information.
Classes & Primary Ability
Class Primary Ability
Artificer Intelligence
Barbarian Strength
Bard Charisma
Cleric Wisdom
Druid Wisdom
Fighter Strength, Dexterity (Choose 1)
Monk Dexterity, Wisdom (Choose 1)
Paladin Strength, Charisma (Choose 1)
Ranger Dexterity, Wisdom (Choose 1)
Rogue Dexterity
Sorcerer Charisma
Warlock Charisma
Wizard Intelligence

Odd Lineage

The following lineages function slightly differently within the confines of these rules. An Odd Lineage that grants a bonus can not be applied to a character's Primary Ability or their Ability Score they choose from their Background.
  • Mountain Dwarf. You gain a +1 bonus to Strength, if your Primary Ability is Strength, increase your Background Ability Score Increase bonus from +1 to +2.
  • Half Elf. You gain a +1 bonus to be placed into any Ability Score that is not your Primary Ability or your Background Ability Increase.
  • Human. You gain a +1 bonus to every Ability Score, you do not gain increases from your Primary Ability or your Background Ability Score Increase.
  • Variant Human. You only gain a +1 bonus to your Class' Primary Ability.
  • Kobold. You suffer a -2 to your Strength Ability Score and do not gain the bonus from your background.
  • Volo's Orc. You suffer a -2 to your Intelligence Ability Score. (Does not apply to Exandria's Orc).
  • Triton. You only gain a +1 bonus to your Class' Primary Ability. In addition, you gain a bonus +1 increase to one Ability Score that doesn't correspond with your Primary Ability or your Background Ability Score Increase.
  • Changeling. You are not restricted by your Background as to what your Background Ability Score Increase is in and the bonus can be applied to your Class' Primary Ability.
  • Warforged. You are not restricted by your Background as to what your Background Ability Score Increase is in except it can not be applied to your Primary Ability Score.
  • Simic Hybrid. You are not restricted by your Background as to what your Background Ability Score Increase is in except it can not be applied to your Primary Ability Score.
Background Ability Score Increase (Choose One) Associated Skill Proficiencies
Acolyte Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Insight, Religion
Anthropologist Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Insight, Religion
Archaeologist Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom History, Survival
Athlete Strength, Dexterity, Constitution Athletics, Acrobatics
Azorius Functionary Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Insight, Intimidation
Boros Legionnaire Strength, Constitution, Charisma Athletics, Intimidation
Charlatan Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma Deception, Sleight of Hand
City Watch / Investigator Strength, Intelligence, Wisdom Athletics, Investigation, Insight
Clan Crafter Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma History, Insight
Cloistered Scholar Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom History, Arcana, Nature, Religion
Courtier Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma Insight, Persuasion
Criminal / Spy Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma Deception, Stealth
Dimir Operative Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma Deception, Stealth
Entertainer Dexterity, Constitution, Charisma Acrobatics, Performance
Faceless Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma Deception, Intimidation
Faction Agent Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Any Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma
Far Traveler Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Insight, Perception
Fisher Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom History, Survival
Folk Hero Strength, Wisdom, Charisma Animal Handling, Survival
Gladiator Strength, Dexterity, Charisma Acrobatics, Performance
Golgari Agent Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom Nature, Survival
Gruul Anarch Strength, Constitution, Wisdom Animal Handling, Athletics
Guild Artisan / Guild Merchant Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Insight, Persuasion
Haunted One Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom Any Intelligence or Wisdom
Hermit Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom Medicine, Religion
House Agent Dexterity, Intelligence, Charisma Investigation, Persuasion
Inheritor Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom Survival, Arcana, History, Religion
Izzet Engineer Dexterity, Constitution, Intelligence Arcana, Investigation
Knight Strength, Intelligence, Charisma History, Persuasion
Marine Strength, Dexterity, Wisdom Athletics, Survival
Noble Constitution, Intelligence, Charisma History, Persuasion
Orzhov Representative Strength, Intelligence, Charisma Intimidation, Religion
Outlander Strength, Constitution, Wisdom Athletics, Survival
Rakdos Cultist Dexterity, Constitution, Charisma Acrobatics, Performance
Sage Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom Arcana, History
Sailor / Pirate Strength, Dexterity, Wisdom Athletics, Perception
Selesnya Initiate Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma Nature, Persuasion
Shipwright Strength, Intelligence, Wisdom History, Perception
Simic Scientist Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom Arcana, Medicine
Smuggler Strength, Dexterity, Charisma Athletics, Deception
Soldier Strength, Constitution, Charisma Athletics, Intimidation
Urban Bounty Hunter Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma Stealth, Insight, Deception, Persuasion
Urchin Dexterity, Constitution, Wisdom Sleight of Hand, Stealth

Variant Rules

Variant: Split Primary Ability

You can instead choose to not gain the +2 bonus to your Class' Primary Ability but rather take two +1 Ability Increases instead. The bonuses can not be to the same Ability Score as each other but can be applied to the same Background Ability Score Increase or with an Odd Lineage's bonus. The DM may decide that one of the Ability Score Increases must be applied to your Primary Ability.

Variant: Subclass

If you know what subclass you'd like to take when creating your character, your Primary Ability options that you can choose from extend to include the Primary Ability of that subclass. For example, Eldritch Knights and Arcane Tricksters would add Intelligence as a Primary Ability choice to their respective Classes. The DM has final say on which subclasses grant additional choices for the Primary Ability options.

Variant: Background Abilities

The Backgrounds provided are from the Player's Handbook, Sword Coast Adventurer's Guide, Guildmaster's Guide to Ravnica, and others. All Background Ability Score Increases are based on the Skill Proficiencies offered by that Background, as well as taking into account it's Background Feature. The DM may decide to allow different Ability Scores to be linked to different Backgrounds, though that does make certain lineages less unique, see the section on Odd Lineages for examples.

Variant: Custom Backgrounds

If you make a custom background, work with your DM to determine what Ability Score Increase it might provide. The options should be closely tied to what Skill Proficiencies and Background Feature is provided.
submitted by varansl to DnDBehindTheScreen [link] [comments]

I'm compiling a list of remaining errors in published books. Let me know what errors you have found.

Player's Handbook

Dungeon Master's Guide

Monster Manual

Xanathar's Guide to Everything

Mordenkainen's Tome of Foes

Ebberon: Rising from the Last War

Guildmaster's Guide to Ravnica

Ghosts of Saltmarsh

Storm King's Thunder

Tomb of Annihilation

Current errata for reference:
Edit: I've added suggested fixes in italics. Let me know if you'd suggest a different fix, or if you don't believe an entry above is in error.
Thanks heaps to the people sharing the errors they've found.
submitted by KittenWithMittens to dndnext [link] [comments]

Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update October 8, 2020

Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update October 8, 2020
Notes by mr_tyler_durden and Daily Update Team
Check your registration status, ballot status, or how to vote here!
Note: Thank you to the people who have given awards to these posts but I do want to say: Please don’t spend money to give these posts an award or if you want to give then donate it here instead. These people need your help more than I need awards. I guess if you are just spending reddit coins that you already have then that’s fine but don’t spend new money, donate it instead. Thank you all!
Watch here:
Headlines
  1. For the very first one is the Team Kentucky Fund, and I have some great news to share. We partnered with the community action of Kentucky and they have served as the hands and feet of our operation and I'm happy to announce today that we have officially given $1 million in aid to Kentuckians through the Team Kentucky Fund. [...] So if you've fallen on hard times financially because of COVID-19, please visit https://teamkyfund.ky.gov/ to apply. If you want to help your fellow Kentucky and you can make a donation at http://donate.ky.gov/ every gift is tax deductible and 100% of the proceeds go directly to support Kentuckians.
Full Notes
(continued in stickied comment)
submitted by mr_tyler_durden to Coronavirus_KY [link] [comments]

Half-Ogre (race)

Earlier editions of the game provided options of varying degrees of officiality to play the offspring of human and ogre parents. A number of homebrewers have put together their own takes on the race, but practically all of the ones that I've seen double down on such a character being of a Large size, which presents a lot of issues. 5th edition has the goliath, which is a passable analog that could be reflavored to more or less be a half-ogre, but I wanted to try my hand at putting together an explicit, and more thematically appropriate, half-ogre race, using the goliath as a starting point.
I hope you enjoy the results! As always, feedback is very much appreciated.

Half-Ogre
Usually the result of a forced union between an ogre and a human, the half-ogre is a rare being often unfairly maligned simply because of their heritage. A half-ogre has the impressive physical attributes of their ogre parent — incredible strength and formidable size — combined with the greater intellect and sensibility from their human ancestry.
Survival of the Strongest
With their pale yellow to ochre-colored skin, prominent brow, large lower tusks, and massive, hulking form, it’s impossible to mistake a half-ogre for anything other than perhaps an undersized ogre.
Half-ogres stand over 8 feet in height and have stocky, muscular bodies that typically weigh in at about 450 lbs. While considerably smaller than full-blooded ogres, half-ogres still tower over most other people, and what may seem like a feat of great strength for a human or a dwarf is probably a fairly mundane task for a half-ogre.
A Life of Hardship
For many half-ogres, life is pain and misery starting from birth, and every morning that they wake up is a victory unto itself. For those raised in the wilderness by an ogre tribe,
For many half-ogres, life is nothing but a series of struggles from birth. Those raised in the wilderness by an ogre tribe have a miserable upbringing, viewed as weak, pathetic runts and never shown an ounce of love. These unfortunate souls are regularly battered and beaten, and are just as likely to be killed by a member of their family for an imagined offense as they are by enemies of the clan. Half-ogres living amongst humans fare only a little better, often leading isolated lives shunned by civilized folk who are equal parts consumed with fear by and riddled with disgust at their monstrous heritage.
Friend vs. Foe
Those half-ogres that manage to survive to maturity are necessarily independent people, relying on their own instincts and wary of the motives of others. While a half-ogre may be stand-offish and short-tempered, those who show them kindness and have the patience and willingness to earn their trust will discover that half-ogres can be some of the most steadfast and loyal friends.
Half-Ogre Traits
Your half-ogre character has a number of traits in common with all other half-ogres.
Ability Score Increase. Your Strength and Constitution scores increase by 2, and one ability score of your choice decreases by 1.
Age. Half-ogres mature faster than humans, reaching adulthood at around age 12. They age at a notably accelerated rate and as such do not often live beyond the age of 65.
Alignment. Half-ogres have a tendency toward chaos due to their ogre lineage. Those raised among ogres and willing to stay with their clan are usually evil, but those rare half-ogres who venture out into the world and live among more civilized people tend towards neutrality or possibly even good.
Size. Half-ogres are substantially larger than humans with bulky, often rotund bodies, standing slightly over 8 feet tall and weighing roughly 450 lbs. on average. Your size is Medium.
Speed. Your base walking speed is 30 feet.
Darkvision. Thanks to your ogre lineage, you have superior vision in dark and dim conditions. You can see in dim light within 60 feet of you as if it were bright light, and in darkness as if it were dim light. You can’t discern color in darkness, only shades of gray.
Brute Strength. When you roll a 1 on the d20 for a Strength ability check, a Strength saving throw, or an attack roll that uses your Strength modifier, you can reroll the die and must use the new roll.
Fearsome. You gain proficiency in the Intimidation skill.
Numb to the Pain. Ogres live a harsh, brutal life filled with misery and suffering, and life is not so different for half-ogres, who quickly grow accustomed to pain and injury. When you take damage, you can use your reaction to roll a d12. Add your Constitution modifier to the number rolled, and reduce the damage by that total. After you use this trait, you can’t use it again until you finish a short or long rest.
Powerful Build. You count as one size larger when determining your carrying capacity and the weight you can push, drag, or lift.
Languages. You can speak, read, and write Common and Giant.

Links:
submitted by Okayest-DM to UnearthedArcana [link] [comments]

Half-Ogre (race)

Earlier editions of the game provided options of varying degrees of officiality to play the offspring of human and ogre parents. A number of homebrewers have put together their own takes on the race, but practically all of the ones that I've seen double down on such a character being of a Large size, which presents a lot of issues. 5th edition has the goliath, which is a passable analog that could be reflavored to more or less be a half-ogre, but I wanted to try my hand at putting together an explicit, and more thematically appropriate, half-ogre race, using the goliath as a starting point.
I hope you enjoy the results! As always, feedback is very much appreciated.

Half-Ogre
Usually the result of a forced union between an ogre and a human, the half-ogre is a rare being often unfairly maligned simply because of their heritage. A half-ogre has the impressive physical attributes of their ogre parent — incredible strength and formidable size — combined with the greater intellect and sensibility from their human ancestry.
Survival of the Strongest
With their pale yellow to ochre-colored skin, prominent brow, large lower tusks, and massive, hulking form, it’s impossible to mistake a half-ogre for anything other than perhaps an undersized ogre.
Half-ogres stand over 8 feet in height and have stocky, muscular bodies that typically weigh in at about 450 lbs. While considerably smaller than full-blooded ogres, half-ogres still tower over most other people, and what may seem like a feat of great strength for a human or a dwarf is probably a fairly mundane task for a half-ogre.
A Life of Hardship
For many half-ogres, life is pain and misery starting from birth, and every morning that they wake up is a victory unto itself. For those raised in the wilderness by an ogre tribe,
For many half-ogres, life is nothing but a series of struggles from birth. Those raised in the wilderness by an ogre tribe have a miserable upbringing, viewed as weak, pathetic runts and never shown an ounce of love. These unfortunate souls are regularly battered and beaten, and are just as likely to be killed by a member of their family for an imagined offense as they are by enemies of the clan. Half-ogres living amongst humans fare only a little better, often leading isolated lives shunned by civilized folk who are equal parts consumed with fear by and riddled with disgust at their monstrous heritage.
Friend vs. Foe
Those half-ogres that manage to survive to maturity are necessarily independent people, relying on their own instincts and wary of the motives of others. While a half-ogre may be stand-offish and short-tempered, those who show them kindness and have the patience and willingness to earn their trust will discover that half-ogres can be some of the most steadfast and loyal friends.
Half-Ogre Traits
Your half-ogre character has a number of traits in common with all other half-ogres.
Ability Score Increase. Your Strength and Constitution scores increase by 2, and one ability score of your choice decreases by 1.
Age. Half-ogres mature faster than humans, reaching adulthood at around age 12. They age at a notably accelerated rate and as such do not often live beyond the age of 65.
Alignment. Half-ogres have a tendency toward chaos due to their ogre lineage. Those raised among ogres and willing to stay with their clan are usually evil, but those rare half-ogres who venture out into the world and live among more civilized people tend towards neutrality or possibly even good.
Size. Half-ogres are substantially larger than humans with bulky, often rotund bodies, standing slightly over 8 feet tall and weighing roughly 450 lbs. on average. Your size is Medium.
Speed. Your base walking speed is 30 feet.
Darkvision. Thanks to your ogre lineage, you have superior vision in dark and dim conditions. You can see in dim light within 60 feet of you as if it were bright light, and in darkness as if it were dim light. You can’t discern color in darkness, only shades of gray.
Brute Strength. When you roll a 1 on the d20 for a Strength ability check, a Strength saving throw, or an attack roll that uses your Strength modifier, you can reroll the die and must use the new roll.
Fearsome. You gain proficiency in the Intimidation skill.
Numb to the Pain. Ogres live a harsh, brutal life filled with misery and suffering, and life is not so different for half-ogres, who quickly grow accustomed to pain and injury. When you take damage, you can use your reaction to roll a d12. Add your Constitution modifier to the number rolled, and reduce the damage by that total. After you use this trait, you can’t use it again until you finish a short or long rest.
Powerful Build. You count as one size larger when determining your carrying capacity and the weight you can push, drag, or lift.
Languages. You can speak, read, and write Common and Giant.

Links:
submitted by Okayest-DM to DnDHomebrew [link] [comments]

Series Part 2: All About TOPICAL VITAMIN C ---- L-AA & Derivatives

Series Part 2: All About TOPICAL VITAMIN C ---- L-AA & Derivatives
This post will cover topical use of vitamin c and it's derivatives.
Link to the previous post.



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Topical Use of vitamin C has been proven to be beneficial in many many studies. I am quoting all the studies I could find, and listing all the benefits as well.
Topical use of Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid/Ascorbic Acid) has been proven to:
  1. Help with the biosynthesis of collagen. - Anti - Ageing benefit.
  2. Help in the repair of damaged skin/ skin wounds with anti-inflammatory properties - Restore skin health.
  3. Increase the proliferation rate of fibroblasts. - Anti - Ageing benefit.
  4. Provide greater photoprotection against UV induced photoaging, immunosuppression, and even skin cancer. - Anti - Ageing benefit, - Anti - skin cancer.
  5. Inhibit the action of tyrosinase in melanocytes thus helps to make skin even-toned.- Helps with pigmentation.
  6. Restore structural and functional losses in the skin architecture associated with ageing. - Anti - Ageing benefit.
  7. Help to strengthen the lipid barrier (possibly, proven in vitro). - Restore skin health.

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There have been A LOT of studies on topical vitamin C. I have extracted and link a few I found relevant that support it benefits at THE END of this post.
There is enough evidence to believe that topically applied L-ascorbic acid is beneficial.
While most people treat Vitamin C like an acid, it's mechanism isn't exactly similar to AHA's. L-ascorbic acid is a form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) that is recognisable as vitamin C in the skin. Topical use adds to the existing concentration of Vitamin C in the skin.
Thus, once it penetrates into the skin, it cannot be washed off/neutralised. However, some actives applied togetheat the same time can change its performance/form.
L-ascorbic acid is a hydrophilic charged molecule so it doesn't easily penetrate our lipid (hydrophobic) barrier. For optimal penetration of the epidermal barrier, aqueous formulations of ascorbic acid must be at a pH which is below the pKa (4.2) of ascorbic acid itself. Thus, L-ascorbic acid must be formulated below the PH of AT LEAST 4 for it to penetrate in our skin.
Although ideally around 3-3.5 increased penetration without excessively compromising the skin barrier.
The prime concentration depends on the formulation and associated delivery method. It is a general agreement that concentration needs to be more than 8% to be bio-available and effective. According to this study, varying concentrations from 5% to 30% were applied to pig skin(similar integumentary system approach).
It was observed that vitamin C concentration was maximum at 20% and anything above 20% surprising cause depletion in tissue concentration levels. Thus anything below 8% and above 20% is usually seen to be sparse or superfluous.
There are many stability issues with L-ascorbic acid solutions. An L-ascorbic acid solution is highly unstable and is prove to oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid(DHAA) and degradation to 2,3-diketogulonate in high temperature, light, heat, high ph, presence of oxygen and catalytic amounts of metal ions. This makes the solution progressively turn in colour from clear to yellow, to deeper shades of orange as it continues to degrade.

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  • Now the question comes: is dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) bad for our skin?
The answer is No and Yes.
Ascorbic acid or ascorbate in its ionised form is called L-ascorbic acid. Our skin recognises L-ascorbic as ascorbic acid. Our body (and skin) also contains an oxidised form of ascorbic acid which is Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). A high amount of vitamin C found in normal skin is in the form of dehydroascorbic Acid. This study shows that DHAA penetrated faster than L-ascorbic acid even. DHAA may not necessarily be bad and can be converted back to ascorbic acid in the presence of glutathione & thiol-containing reducing agents such as cysteine, homocysteine, 2-mercaptoethanol, and DTT, already present in our body. However, in the presence of water DHAA may be irreversibly hydrolysed to 2,3-diketogulonate and further degrade to Erythrulose. Erythrulose is a chemical used in fake tanning.
But “Aap Chronology Samajhiye” with this representation -

https://preview.redd.it/ipk7xxd87ar51.png?width=1306&format=png&auto=webp&s=b353acd40e51fbe1a80e72d94f3e4e2a8c771cd7
L-AA is first oxidised to DHAA (which can be reversed in our skin). Oxidation means a reaction with the free form of oxygen molecules. Remember we learnt this in the last post. So oxidation can happen if L-AA is exposed to UV/oxygen in the environment at high temperature. However, DHAA can be reversed to AA in our skin because the presence of network antioxidants like glutathione that's already present in your skin. Check out this diagram to understand how that works. However, when DHAA comes in contact with water it hydrolyses to 2,3-diketogulonate. Which cannot be turned back into AA due to the 5 hydrogen ring rupture. L-AA will not directly convert to 2,3-diketogulonate. It has to first oxidize then hydrolyse.2,3-diketogulonate may be further converted to other byproducts by other processes.
Lab muffin made a post on this.
It is possible that DHAA may not convert to Erythrulose in our skin.
In conclusion, there is a lot of ambiguity around oxidised L-ascorbic acid and further processed byproducts.
No studies have evaluated the benefits and side effects of these oxidised and degraded compounds.
Although, the presence of antioxidants like ferulic acid, glutathione, vitamin e, etc. has been shown to increase the stability and efficiency of L-ascorbic acid serums. These called network antioxidants because of this reason. Again check out the diagram linked above to understand more.
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To improve stability, the delivery mechanism also plays an important role. The right delivery mechanism can help prevent oxidation and conversion to other forms. Novel delivery mechanisms may also improve penetration along with stability. New delivery mechanisms to deliver L-AA without oxidizing are bein developed. This study advocates using liposomal technology patented by Sesdema to deliver sodium ascorbate deeper into the skin. Many skincare companies are developing new anhydrous bases to disperse L-AA to prevent oxidation. Here is another study of a new delivery mechanism.
However, an independent comparative study comparing different forms and delivery mechanisms of topical ascorbic acid has not been conducted.
So in conclusion:
  • For L-ascorbic acid formulations in an aqueous:
    • Must be formulated to be below PH 3.5 or below.
    • Must be formulated using oxygen-impermeable packaging and stored at low temperature.
    • Must be at a concentration above 5-8% and below 20%.
    • Addition of other antioxidants can help improve the stability of the formulation.
    • Must be stored in a dark/light-proof packaging at a stable temperature of 25 celsius or below.
    • Must be used up quickly once exposed to ailight.
    • Addition of penetration enhancers may help improve results.

  • For L-Ascorbic acid in a Non-aqueous solution:
    • Must be formulated using oxygen-impermeable packaging and stored at low temperature.
    • Addition of other antioxidants can help improve the stability of the formulation.
    • Must be stored in a dark/light-proof packaging.
    • Performance varies with the efficiency of delivery mechanisms.

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Owing to these stability, penetration and delivery issues with L-Ascorbic acid formulas, new derivatives of Ascorbic acid were developed.
Now my field of experience is not even remotely linked to bio-chemistry so I am not going to go in detail about the biochemical pathways that are hypothesised for their efficiency. I will, however, try to compare popular derivates and their performance/properties in brief based on information available on the internet.
A comparative analysis of various Vitamin C Derivatives
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Let's be honest that picking one among the sea of options is intimidating. Fairly, it comes down to personal preference and availability.
While choosing though there are certain things you should keep in mind. Only L-ascorbic acid has been studied for over 40 years now and has consistently proven to be advantageous topically.
Due to its highly unstable nature,
  • It is best to keep all your water-based L-AA carefully protected. I
  • Ideally, they should be stored in a place with a stable temperature (in the fridge) and away from light. The smaller the quantity size the better.
  • Once oxygen touches the formula it starts to become unstable and turn yellow, making it very important to screw the lid tightly. The more product you use; the more the leftover product oxidises. Some people recommend transferring them in smaller bottles. I, apart, found that it gets tiresome to clear, sanitize bottles and dry old bottles ever. Any remains of LAA will oxidize and adding fresh batch in oxidised bottled can spoil the new batch.
Using waterbased L-AA requires some commitment and care. I love the effects though. Personally, I will walk the mile for those benefits.
Anhydrous variants are another great option. There are some limitations with anhydrous versions as well though***.*** Since AA is acidic and gritty in itself, these formulas can sting and sensitize your skin. Many people break out while using high concentration L-AA for the first time. Its highly acidic nature can compromise the skin barrier. It's best to start with a lower concentration and gradually make your skin acquainted to L-AA. This can also be achieved by using L-AA a few times a week in the start and adding barrier healing skincare products to your regime.
Most people experience a slight stinging when they use L-AA based products. There is a difference between stinging and burning although. If your skin feels like it's burning, it's best to step back, stop use and choose a diluted version/low concentration formula.
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  • The question comes: How to differentiate between stinging and burning?
Stinging is a sharp, short term, tingling sensation associated due to the low ph. It can last anywhere from a few seconds to a minute. Skin doesn't itch, turn red or feel sensitive to touch post that duration. This sensation may be experienced every time you apply L-AA but the intensity may reduce over the period.
Burning is a strong irritation that feels different from tingling. It is a strong discomfort which may be coupled with redness, itching and touch sensitivity. It basically feels like your skin is on fire. Please immediately wash your face with water to wipe off remains of the product and apply soothing, gentle products containing restorative ingredients like aloe, snail mucin, ceramides etc.
It is best to patch test L-AA based products before applying it all over the face to understanding the way it reacts with your skin. Our mod u/avaale has made an amazingly detailed guide about patch testing. Please check it out to understand more about patch testing.
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In conclusion, L-AA may not be the best option for everyone due to its stability and skin sensitizing issues. If that is the case, you can still get some benefits by incorporating vitamin c derivatives. There is a catch though. Not all derivates are equal and not enough comparative studies have been conducted to conclude which one is the most superior form.
However, by understanding the nature of the ingredient coupled with the anecdotal evidence we can understand a few things:
  • Some derivates are lipophilic/ amphiphilic so they dissolve better in lipid formulations. These formulations may include oils, butter and silicones.
  • While each formulation differs from another due to the choice of base ingredients. Some base lipids may be balanced to reduce the likeliness of comedogenicity and therefore may be less likely to cause breakouts in acne-prone skin type. Others may not suit your skin type.
  • The concentration of active ingredient plays equally an important role.

  • Pick a formula that works with your skin type, condition and goal.
    • Concentrations at which Ascorbyl palmitate ( AA-PAL) is used are extremely low. While vitamin C has shown some effects at concentrations as low as 1% but at the benefits of that concentration aren't hugely significant. When using derivatives in those concentrations, keep in mind that the derivative needs to convert to Vitamin C in your skin and some strength may be lost in the conversion. Coupling that with its stability issues, Ascorbyl palmitate doesn't catch my interest.
    • Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) & Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) are more stable than AA-PAL but face the same roadblocks when it comes to formulating restrictions on concentration. Poor penetration and unreliable conversion don't benefit their case point. However, if acne is a pre-existing condition that you are dealing with, SAP may be an option to consider since there are some studies that support its anti-acne benefits. MAP is generally considered a better option in the industry than SAP from the overall vitamin C benefit perspective.
    • Ascorbyl Glucoside is a better option than the ones I discussed above. It is stable at a variety of pH. Thus, it can comfortably be used by with sensitive skin. It can be incorporated in a liquid wateserum-based or formulated in a cream/gel base. It has been proven to convert into vitamin C in the skin and has been proven to have some anti-ageing benefits. However, potency is still questionable due to concentration restrictions. If you prefer easy of use and elegant- textured cosmetic products, this derivative may be considered.
    • Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate is a newer derivative. It has not been independently researched much. There is this one study in a formula that also contained AA, which advocates it's benefits. In general, this derivative is unique due to its chemical structure and properties. Manufacturer claims suggest that it seeps in deeper into the skin than L-AA and stays in the skin 40-80% longer than L-AA. ( I am not sure if I can link/upload manufacturer documents I found through some sources and digging so if you are curious, watch out for my Instagram stories). Overall this ingredient is popular in Japan for its whitening properties and its lipid solubility puts it in an advantageous position to penetrate through the stratum corneum into the epidermis and the dermis. There is some anecdotal evidence that supports the claim that it may be one of the best derivatives out there. I also found some very expensive luxury skincare brands using this ingredient (will be sharing those insights on Instagram as well; May make a separate post if I am not being lazy).
    • Last, but not least is 3-O-Ethyl Ascorbate. It is one of the newest kid in the lot. Experts think it's structurally the closest to AA. It is an Ethylated form of AA so it's both water and lipid-soluble. Stability tests have shown it's a very stable derivative at a PH of 5. Thus, the shelf life of EAC formulated products should be longer than others. Manufacturers and cosmetic companies claim that it provides similar benefits of L-AA is not better, without the stability issues. None of these claims has been verified although. It has shown to provide some de-pigmenting and antioxidant benefits by manufacturers in vitro trials. It can be formulated using high concentrations thus, it's another derivative to watch out for.
So, which one is perfect for you? YOU decide that.
This chart may help you come to some conclusion:

A graphical representation to make your decision easier.
Another important detail: Almost all vitamin C formulations stay in your skin for up to 72 hours. Metals like iron and copper are known to destabilize and cause unwanted biochemical reactions with AA. Thus is it best not to use copper peptide formulation with vitamin C to maximize their benefit. By not using Copper peptide, I mean not just applying them together at the same time but also not using them in the same duration. So if you wish to use copper peptide you can rotate by using it for the first 3 months of the year and next three months using vitamin C and so on.

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Some Extracts with Links to Clinical Studies/Research Journals I found relevant that support the benefit of topical application of L-AA:
23.8% L-ascorbic acid and a chemical penetration enhancer consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dimethyl isosorbide with iontophoresis to maximize amounts of L– ascorbic acid delivered were applied once daily, in a split-face study on twenty females (Fitzpatrick type III & IV to study the effect of Vitamin C on photoaged skin. Sixteen of 20 patients (80% experienced a score decrease of 2 or 3 grades, according to the dermatologist. Fifteen patients (75%) rated their overall satisfaction as excellent or good. Dyspigmentation, surface roughness, and fine lines on the treated side improved significantly.)) Topical 23.8% L-ascorbic acid serum is effective for the treatment of photo-aged skin and does not cause any obvious side effects. Link
A double-blind randomized trial was performed to evaluate the clinical effects and the modifications of skin relief and structure over a 6-month period of use of a cream containing 5% vitamin C (Active C®, Laboratories La Roche Posay, 92407 Courbevoie Cedex, France on photoaged skin. Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 51-59 years (mean ± SD = 55.3 ± 2.8 years, were chosen for this study. Skin regions that presented with signs of ageing, the low-neck and dorsal aspects of both forearms/ the left or right half of the upper chest and the corresponding forearm were randomly assigned to once a day application of a fingertip unit of either 5% vitamin C cream or excipient alone. Each patient received a randomized pair of identical-appearing tubes, colour-coded and labelled right or left. Among these 20 patients, 10 accepted to be biopsied on both forearms at the end of the trial, after 6 months of treatment.)) Concluded that topical application of 5% vitamin C is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for improvement in the appearance of photodamaged skin. Prolonged topical treatment with ascorbic acid, applied in an appropriate vehicle, may result in activation of a dermal synthesis of elastic fibres. - Link
Fifty female volunteers aged 30‐65 years were allocated one capsule containing vitamin C (20% w/w, vitamin E, and European raspberry (Rubus idaeus leaf cell culture extract of serum for topical application on one side of the face for 2 months, in addition to self‐use of facial skin products to evaluate the anti-ageing and brightening effects of an encapsulated serum.)) ***The study evaluated improvements in skin ageing, pigment appearance, and skin integrity but no no significant improvement of skin moisture or TEWL was observed. Link
Nineteen volunteers between age 36 to 72 years belonging to Fitzpatrick skin types I, II & III were included in a 3-month, randomized, double-blind, a vehicle-controlled study that uses a product Cellex ( L-AA serum to analyse its effect on photodamaged skin topography.) A 3-month daily regimen of topical ascorbic acid provided objective and subjective improvement in photodamaged facial skin - Link, Link
500 mL portions of vehicle; 0.5%transferulic acid; 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% DL-a-tocopherol, and 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% DL-a-tocopherol, 0.5%transferulic acid were applied to patches of back skin (7.5 x10cm daily for 4 days. A 1000 W solar simulator fitted with a WG295 Schott filter to eliminate wavelengths less than 295 nm delivered UV radiation to the skin’s surface through a liquid light guide at an intensity of 5 mW per cm2of UVB and about 40 mW per cm2of UVA as measured by a radiometer. MED(Minimal Erythema Dose was determined as the lowest dose resulting in erythema with perceptible borders (40 mJ per cm2)of UVB). Each patch was given solar-simulated irradiation in triplicate from 2x to 10x MED at 2x MED intervals. An evaluation was carried out 24 h later. The combination of 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% a-tocopherol, 0.5% ferulic acid provided approximately 8-fold protection and was statistically different than ferulic acid alone or the combination of vitamins C and E. - Link ; Check this if you want to learn more about MED testing.
Two different solutions were applied (2mg/cm2 to the back skin of human volunteers daily for four days. One solution was an aqueous solution containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% d-tocopherol and 0.5% trans ferulic acid (C E Ferulic; the other, a vehicle control solution. On day four, solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation, passed through a WG295 Schott selective UVB band high pass filter to eliminate wavelengths less than 295 nm was administered to each patch of treated skin. The vehicle patch received 2-6x MED and the C E Ferulic patch received 2-10x MED of solar-simulated irradiation, each at 2x MED intervals. One day later, skin was evaluated by colorimeter for erythema and biopsies of 6x MED-irradiated skin were evaluated for sunburn cells. Each spot and adjacent unirradiated skin was measured in triplicate. The difference between irradiated and unirradiated skin determined the erythema. Sunburn cells were determined in formalin-fixed 8mm punch biopsy sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin.) C E Ferulic provided substantial protection against erythema.) Link
Dermal papillae is the structural junction between the dermis & the epidermis. It has been observed to flatten out with age. The influence of ageing on the density of the functional entities of the papillae containing nutritive capillaries, here in terms as the papillary index, and the effect of topically applied vitamin C were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in vivo. There were significant decreases in the papillary index showing a clear dependency on age. Topical vitamin C resulted in a significant increase of the density of dermal papillae from 4 weeks onward compared to its vehicle. Reproducibility was determined in repeated studies.) Topical vitamin C may have therapeutic effects for partial corrections of the regressive structural changes associated with the aging process. - Link
Forty subjects with melasma were treated with C'ensil during an open-label trial over a period of 16 weeks. Each subject's skin pigmentation was assessed every 4 weeks using the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI and mexameter score. In addition, transepidermal water loss, skin dryness and irritation, and quality of life (Melasma Quality of Life Scale [MelasQoL] were evaluated.)) After 16 weeks, a significant decrease was noted in the degree of pigmentation based on the patients' MASI and mexameter scores.Link
Sixteen women with idiopathic melasma were included in our trial. After randomization by another clinician, they were instructed to use, at night, 5% ascorbic acid cream on one side of the face and 4% hydroquinone cream on the other side, for 16 weeks. The best subjective improvement was observed on the hydroquinone side with 93% good and excellent results, compared with 62.5% on the ascorbic acid side (P < 0.05; however, colorimetric measures showed no statistical differences. Side‐effects were present in 68.7% (11/16 with hydroquinone vs. 6.2% (1/16) with ascorbic acid.)) Although hydroquinone showed a better response, ascorbic acid may play a role in the therapy of melasma as it is almost devoid of side-effects; - Link
The study following performed on Indian subjects.
A split face, comparative study was conducted on 30 female melasma patients. After obtaining informed consent, microneedling with Tranexamic acid was done on the left side and microneedling with Vitamin C was done on the right side of the face. The improvement was evaluated on the basis of clinical photographs, MASI, Physician Global Assessment (PGA and Patient Global Assessment (PtGA at each visit (0, 4 and 8 weeks). At the end of 8 weeks, MASI, PGA and PtGA showed improvement with both tranexamic acid and vitamin C.)) The improvement was more with tranexamic acid than with vitamin C, although not statistically significant.Both TXA and Vitamin C are effective and safe treatments for melasma. -Link Link





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Note: SORRY FOR THE LONG POST ONCE AGAIN!!
During my research, I found some really interesting Insights & Dupes for popular vitamin C formulas and products from manufacturer documents. I also cost/formula analysed Most Popular Vitamin C products. I even looked up all possible options for vitamin C in Indian markets.
I will try to share these insights on my Instagram soon and maybe make a post about my finding and whatever is left out in a follow-up post if I am not being lazy. There is still a lot to explore about Vitamin C. Look out for my upcoming Instagram stories if you are curious.
Note: I do not consent to anyone sharing screenshots of my posts without my approval on any social platform.
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--Fun Fact--
The founder of SkinCeuticals Dr Sheldon R. Pinnell conducted turnkey research in the field on Vitamin C as a topical antioxidant. His first study published on topical application of vitamin C goes back to 1991. He filed his patent for Skinceutical CE ferulic in 2005. I guess that's why it remains the most coveted formulation and has been used by other researchers in various studies. It also justifies its price I guess. The good thing is that the patent is expiring in 2025! :P Till then we can only hope and pray someone invests time and research on developing more stable formulations and makes it available to consumers!
Murray, J.; Darr, D.; Reich, J.; Pinnell, S. Topical vitamin C treatment reduces ultraviolet B radiation-induced erythema in human skin. J. Investig. Dermatol. 1991, 96, 587.
Darr, D.; Combs, S.; Dunston, S.; Manning, T.; Pinnell, S.R. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br. J. Dermatol. 1992, 127, 24753.
Phillips, C.L.; Combs, S.B.; Pinnell, S.R. Effects of ascorbic acid on proliferation and collagen synthesis in relation to the donor age of human dermal fibroblasts. J. Investig. Dermatol. 1994.
Colven, R.M.; Pinnell, S.R. Topical vitamin C in ageing. Clin. Dermatol. 1996, 14, 227–234.
Pinnell, S.R.; Yang, H.; Omar, M.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; DeBuys, H.V.; Walker, L.C.; Wang, Y.; Levine, M. Topical L-ascorbic acid: percutaneous absorption studies. Dermatol. Surg. 2001, 27, 137–142.
Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, Manning T, Pinnell S. “UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E”. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 48: 866-874.
Fu-Hsiung Lin 1, Jing-Yi Lin, Ravindra D Gupta, Joshua A Tournas, James A Burch, M Angelica Selim, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere, James M Grichnik, Jan Zielinski, Sheldon R Pinnell **2**005 "Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin" Oct;125(4:826-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23768.x.)
Murray, John & Burch, James & Streilein, Robert & Iannacchione, Mary & Hall, Russell & Pinnell, Sheldon. 2008. A" topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 59. 418-25. 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.05.004.
submitted by Aayu07 to IndianSkincareAddicts [link] [comments]

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